Jim Lavalley, Canada, Recipient: The “Higgins – Langley, Outstanding Lifetime Achievement Award.”. Presented May, 31, 2013, at the NASAR Annual Conference, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.
“For the worldwide impact of Jim’s innovative, ground breaking contributions; and the fundamental changes that he has made to accelerate the growth and professional development of Swiftwater Safety and Rescue Operations, around the world.
This included Jim’s development of new, proven, moving water risk assessment and education protocols, and also the development and application of new designs of specialized Swiftwater equipment; all, helping (along with many others,) to make “Swiftwater Rescue”, a stand alone, technical rescue discipline, around the world.
Jim was the 8th person, and the only Canadian, in the 22-year history of the Higgins – Langley Awards, when (in 2013) he was to awarded this, the committees’ highest, international honor.
Jim, is an International / Court Qualified, Swiftwater and Dynamic Ice, Subject Matter Expert; and has been a major creative force and a visionary leader in the development of all fields of Swiftwater, Flood and Dynamic River Ice Operations and Response, for over 45 years.
Since 1972, Jim Lavalley has focused his professional energy into the world of moving water. During which time, Jim has recorded over 25,000 (documented / witnessed) professional, operational hours (excluding recreational, stand-by and travel hours) in P.P.E., at / on / in / under and over, high risk moving water and dynamic ice environments.
Also, during this time, Jim has accumulated an additional 30,000 (documented / witnessed) professional, project-based hours, directly involved in researching, developing and testing; operational and rescue protocols, industry Standards, course curriculum and equipment performance; in the moving water and moving ice environments
This includes teaching, supporting and defending agencies, that work in the moving water environments, and their people, in court, and at Coroners Inquiries; and managing projects and addressing moving water issues with individuals, clients and organizations, as an International, Court Qualified, Subject Matter Expert, around the world.
SWIFTWATER: (MOVING WATER: WIND BLOWN LAKES, STREAMS, RIVERS, FLOODS, STORM SURGE, DYNAMIC ICE and inside the SURF Line, environments)
The Early Years: 1972 – 1979
Jim’s professional career began with the ‘Wild Rivers Survey”, a river classification program, for Parks Canada, canoeing and classifying wild rivers, that were used as the transportation routes by the fur trade, across western Canada, in the late springs and summers of 1972-73.
This was followed by a career as a professional expedition river guide, trip leader, and company operations manager, working primarily on the big rivers in BC, the Yukon Territory and Alaska, and also in Ontario / Quebec; and on the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona, from 1974 to 1979.
In the mid and late 70’s Jim worked for Canadian River Expeditions (Northern and Western Canada and Alaska), the American River Touring Association (Colorado River) and with Wilderness Tours (on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers). Jim attended Carleton University, in Ottawa (Bachelors in Biology and Economics) from 67 to 73.
In the winters from 74 to 78, Jim was a member of the Canadian National Bobsled Team, representing Canada at the World Championship and the Olympic Games, as the brakeman on the Canada 1 team, in both the 2- and 4-man bobsleds.
During the late spring, summer and the early fall, Jim operated paddle and oar rafts, and motorized rafts and boats on some to the highest volume, free running, rivers in North America, including the Fraser River, in BC, through Hell’s Gate, and the Chilko River (also in BC). And the Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers in eastern Canada, the Colorado River in Arizona and the Alsek / Tatshenshini Rivers in the BC, the Yukon and Alaska, among many others.
The Middle Years: 1980 – 1989
In 1980, Jim (L) co-founded Hyak River Expeditions with Jim Scott, guiding others on rivers in BC, the Yukon and Alaska, and continued his guide training and certification; and contract river safety and rescue professions, until 1989, when they sold the company.
This included leading the first decent of the Firth River in Northwestern Yukon, into the Arctic Ocean, in 1981, with National Geographic Society.
In 1988, Jim L met Jim Segerstrom (Jim S,), the co-founder of the original “Swiftwater Rescue Technician” (SRT) program, co-founder of the Rescue 3, Swiftwater training company. Jim S. was also a co-founder of the Rescue Instructors Association (RIA), a ‘certification’ group.).
That year with Jim Segerstrom, and with the support of Michael Stegemann (former high steel worker, and a BC SAR Swiftwater/Helo/ Dive Rescue team member), Jim L formed Rescue 3 Canada Inc. (R3C), which evolved into Rescue Canada Resource Group Inc., (RC) in 1998.
In 1998 Jim L also started to work with Jim Segerstrom on the new IRA, after he suggested (in 1992), that since the scope of the RIA had expanded, and included an international membership, and the RIA may be better named as the IRIA. See the IRIA segment below.
INTERNATIONAL, COURT QUALIFIED, SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT (S.M.E.)
In 1988, Jim was first named, by his peers, in the British Columbia, Canada Professional Rafting Association, to act as a Subject Matter Expert (S.M.E.) with two others; to represent the group and the Government of British Columbia; in negotiations with the Canadian Federal Minister of Transportation; to develop a Federal Standard for the Commercial, River Rafting Industry.
That same year, Jim also first exposed to the application of the four, key, high-performance, evidence-based protocols, including; 1) Needs and Task Analysis, 2) Root Cause Analysis, 3) Near Miss Analysis and 4) Gap) Analysis; that are used by performance driven, subject matter experts, to create simple, meaningful, applicable and defendable Standards and Best Practice protocols .
Jim learned this process when he was working as a Subject Matter Expert, (S.M.E.), with Col. Roger Carriere, Cdn, Army (Ret’d), developing the new federal Standards (under the Transport Canada’s, Canada Shipping Act), for Commercial River Rafting in BC.
He was first Court Qualified, Internationally, as a Subject Matter Expert (S.M.E.) in the US Federal Court of Chicago, in 1989, during a series of multiple fatality, jury trials.
In 1989, when Jim L (and Jim Scott) sold Hyak River Expeditions, Jim began to focus his professional energy on developing industry leading / evidence based, Swiftwater and Dynamic River Ice safety and rescue courses. In 1995, he started to create, develop, test and manufacture Swiftwater Specific Equipment (See Below), using the four evidence-based protocols; to help professional groups that worked in the moving water environment across North America and around the world.
Clients include members of Special Operations Groups, the Military, Police, Fire, ‘at risk” Occupational and Industrial clients; Federal, State, Provincial and Municipal Task Forces, and clients, Universities and College and Professional Guides. In addition, these courses have been delivered to many ‘at risk’, occupational / industrial clients, including the movie industry; and of course, recreational clients and members of the public.
In 1991, Jim began to formalize and develop an objective, decision making process, driven again by:
1) Evidence-Based Needs, Task and Risk Analysis
2) Root Cause Analysis
3) Near Miss Analysis
4) Gap Analysis
which he had learned in 1988-89 while working on the Transport Canada, Canada Shipping Act Standards Project: and he began applying these processes to Rescue Canada’s course curriculum, and its operational decision-making protocols in 1993.
Driven by client demand, in 1994, Jim began to formally move away from the typical “non-specific, infotainment” driven, course content; which were, and still are being delivered by the casual, Swiftwater, by other “show and tell” service providers, today.
This process evolved to later support new, objective, evidence-based, performance qualified, protocols for Swiftwater / flood and ice operations and education; and also, for the development of new, high performance, specialized, performance driven, Swiftwater, safety and rescue equipment. See Equipment below.
This movement to change was initially based on research completed by both Jim Lavalley and Jim Segerstrom while working, internationally, as court qualified subject matter experts on “fatal accident” court cases, and investigating the direct and indirect issues that led to and surrounded these fatal, Swiftwater, and later, river ice accidents.
AQUATIC, HORIZONTAL ROPE, and BOAT APPLICATIONS IN A SWIFTWATER ENVIRONMENT
In 1995, Jim and Robert Beaudry (RC instructor at (UCC / TRU / Thompson Rivers University) began to, again, move the technical rope overviews, from the old, show and tell, SRT Swiftwater courses, over to a new separate Aquatic Technical Rope Specialist course (with a Technical Rope pre-requisite). They replaced it in the new Rescue Canada SSRT program with new rope Improvised Aquatic Rope Access Safety / Rescue protocols again, founded on the applied, proven, evidence based “Analysis” learned in the Transport Canada / Canada Shipping Act project in 1988, with Roger Carriere.
In the same year Jim began to move Swiftwater boat operations and rescue boat overviews out of the old, show and tell, SRT program, into a standalone Swiftwater Boat Operations and Safety Technician course (SBRT), using the same, proven, 4 evidence-based analysis that was used to restructure the Swiftwater program.
BOAT SAFETY AND RESCUE OPERATIONS IN THE SWIFTWATER / MOVING WATER ENVIRONMENT
Jim has thousands of hours operating boats on rivers, professionally, since 1972.
In 1996, following a Coroner’s Inquiry in Chilliwack, where Jim was a S.M.E. for the Crown, he was asked to develop a Swiftwater Boat Program for the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Conservation and Protection (Enforcement) Group on the Fraser River, in BC, based on the experience he had gained operating and training power boat on large volume rivers, since 1974.
This Swiftwater Boat curriculum became the foundations for many rescue organizations across North America, including OES in California, among many others.
Every year both the high performance, Swiftwater Safety and Rescue curriculum and the Swiftwater Rescue Boat curriculum continues to evolve, and are ungraded and used by professional organizations around the world, including India in 2008 and in China in 2017
ICE (DYNAMIC ICE) SAFETY AND RESCUE OPERATIONS IN THE SWIFTWATER / MOVING WATER ENVIRONMENT
In 1997, while delivering a Swiftwater safety program for BC Hydro, Jim began developing operational river ice safety protocols for BC Hydro, Environment Alberta, and the University of Alberta. Jim realized immediately that ice safety and rescue, on moving water, had very little to do with ice safety and rescue on static water, on ponds and small lakes.
This was for those people who worked on complex, Dynamic River Ice on major rivers across the province. They quickly learned that Swiftwater adaptations to moving water ice far exceeded the safety and rescue practices and equipment (i.e. survival suits) that were / are still standard / accepted for those operating in the Static Ice (ice on non-moving water) environment.
Jim based Rescue Canada’s operational ice safety and rescue protocols on the proven principles from both Swiftwater and vertical ice climbing (Bruce Rieger), operational safety and rescue procedures. Ice on moving water is clearly a primary (1) Swiftwater issue and secondly, (2) an ice environment issue from the very beginning. As opposed to the ice environment on static water, where ice is the primary issue.
The first moving water (Dynamic) ice courses were delivered in 1998, and required a Swiftwater course certification as a prerequisite.
The key principles, technique and equipment that work in static water and a\ice environments have proven not to always work in dynamic, moving water and ice environments.
I.R.I.A. (INTERNATIONAL RESCUE INSTRUCTORS ASSOCIATION) RISK MANAGEMENT MATRIX SYSTEM
This research also resulted in the creation of a court qualified, “Risk Management Matrix” system that after objectively quantifying risk, provides individuals and organizations with the decision-making tools to better assist them to:
1) Develop simple, fact based, Standards and ‘Best Practices’ protocols.
2) Produce applicable operational Procedures and guidelines; and choose the right equipment.
3) Deliver meaningful, applicable and defensible Course Certification Streams and Course Levels; and Course Structure, Content and Curriculum, and
4) Make better, informed decisions regarding planning; and running operations in the field
The first draft of the “Risk Management Matrix” was published in 2000.
Also in 2000, Jim Lavalley, joined Jim Segerstrom, co-founder of the original SRT program and the original RIA [the Rescue Instructors Association] in the early 80’] and Jez Hunter (a former officer in the Royal Marines) to form the International Rescue Instructors Alliance (IRIA) , an inclusive, highly specialized, evidence-based, Standards, Certification and Accreditation organization.
That year, Jim and Jim Segerstrom also formed the Global Rescue Group Inc, in California with the DBA in the US, ‘USA Rescue Network’, and they developed and implemented the “Integrated Training System” for Swiftwater / Boat and Ice, for both Rescue Canada and the USA Rescue Network
HIGH PERFORMANCE, SWIFTWATER SPECIFIC, EQUIPMENT
Jim continued to develop and apply his experience, with input from others and with the three, evidence-based analysis processes, he began to fundamentally redesign rescue PFD’s and other related Swiftwater safety equipment.
In 1997, he formed Force 6 Safety Products Inc., and designed, manufactured and distributed (in its time) the ground breaking ‘Rescuer’ and ‘Instructor’ rescue PFD’s, in 1998.
In 2008 he began development of the Force 6 RescueTec PFD, the first and only rescue PFD to meet the new, and the highest, USCG Type 5 ‘Professional Rescue’ PFD standard, with design engineer Ross Wyborn.
With critical input and support from Casey Ping (Helicopter Rescue Specialist, Austin, Texas) and Ross Wyborn, Jim co-designed, tested and developed the HARS (Helicopter Aquatic Rescue Specialist) PFD, the first molle based PFD with an integrated Class 5 harness, and multiple dorsal and sternum connection points.
The impetus for HARS (Helicopter Aquatic Rescue Specialist) PFD project came from an inquiry by a U.S. Special Forces Group that Jim Segerstrom, Dr. Michael Croslin (a co-founder of Rescue 3) and Jim were working with in Sonora, California, in 2005. The project was completed in 2009.
Both the HARS PFD and the RescueTec PFD’s are now being used by a number of high-performance aquatic helicopter rescue group including Austin, Texas StarFlight and L.A. Fire. groups.
Jim also co-developed a special use (high entry) PFD with the Research and Development team and Marine 6 Company of the New York Fire Dept. (FDNY) in 2014, and which went into service in 2016.
In 2016, Jim and Ross Wyborn, with input from key SME’s, including Warren Roseberry and Casey Ping, developed the completely new, entry level “RescueOps” PFD, to meet the new demands and realities of our client base
Jim is currently working on a number of prototypes including a complete rebuild of the HARS PFD, among other projects.
In the Beginning; ……. Without any Ending in Mind:
Jim’s river life started seriously when he was 11 years old. With his best friend, Ricky Luscombe, they lashed a round piece of heavy canvas, into the center of Ricky’s large tractor tire tube.
And with 2 paddles, they pushed off a few meters below the falls at Hog’s Back on the Rideau River in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
They spun down through the rapids, completely out of control, for a few kilometers, down to Billings Bridge, where they finally made landfall
At the time we were certainly unaware that this may have been one of the first, ‘self-bailing’, raft descents, in Canada.